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What is CAR-T Cell therapy used for Blood Cancer? Know the power of immune cells

CAR-T cell therapy, or Chimeric Antigen Receptor T-cell therapy, is a revolutionary form of immunotherapy designed to treat certain types of blood cancers, particularly leukaemia and lymphoma. 
 

What is CAR-T Cell therapy used for Blood Cancer? Know the power of immune cells RBA
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First Published Jan 18, 2024, 7:30 AM IST

Blood cancer, also known as hematologic cancer, begins in the cells of the blood-forming tissues, such as the bone marrow, lymphatic system, and blood cells. It affects the production and function of blood cells. There are three main types of blood cells: red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. Blood cancer can affect any of these cell types. 

The two primary categories of blood cancers are leukemia, which starts in the bone marrow, where blood cells are produced, and lymphoma, which originates in the lymphatic system, which is part of the body's immune system. Myeloma, also known as multiple myeloma, affects plasma cells in the bone marrow. 

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What is CAR-T Cell therapy used for Blood Cancer? Know the power of immune cells RBA

CAR-T cell therapy, or Chimeric Antigen Receptor T-cell therapy, is a revolutionary form of immunotherapy designed to treat certain types of blood cancers, particularly leukemia and lymphoma. This innovative approach involves genetically modifying a patient's own T cells to enhance their ability to recognize and attack cancer cells. CAR-T cell therapy involves the genetic modification of a patient's own T cells to equip them with chimeric antigen receptors (CARs). These receptors are designed to recognize and bind to specific proteins expressed on the surface of cancer cells. By engineering the patient's immune cells in this manner, CAR-T therapy harnesses the body's natural defense mechanism to target and destroy cancer cells with precision.

In recent years, the field of cancer treatment has witnessed a revolutionary breakthrough with the advent of CAR-T cell therapy. Among the various applications of this innovative approach, its remarkable success in treating blood cancers has garnered significant attention. Chimeric Antigen Receptor T-cell therapy, or CAR-T, represents a groundbreaking development in the fight against hematologic malignancies, showcasing the potential to transform the cancer treatment landscape.

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The Journey from Laboratory to Clinical Success
The roots of CAR-T cell therapy trace back to the early 1990s when researchers began exploring ways to enhance the immune system's ability to recognize and eliminate cancer. The journey from the laboratory to clinical success has been marked by continuous refinement of techniques, overcoming challenges, and rigorous clinical trials.

What is CAR-T Cell therapy used for Blood Cancer? Know the power of immune cells RBA

The Breakthrough in Blood Cancers
The application of CAR-T cell therapy in treating blood cancers, such as leukaemia and lymphoma, has yielded remarkable results. These malignancies often exhibit specific surface markers that make them ideal targets for CAR-T cells. In particular, CD19, a protein commonly found on the surface of B cells, has been a key focus for CAR-T therapy. Regulatory agencies' approval of CAR-T cell therapies like Kymriah and Yescarta underscores the transformative impact on patients with relapsed or refractory blood cancers.

Unleashing the Power of Immune Cells
CAR-T cell therapy represents a paradigm shift in cancer treatment by harnessing the patient's own immune system to combat the disease. Once infused back into the patient, the modified T cells multiply and persist, providing a sustained immune response against cancer cells. The precision and potency of CAR-T cells in targeting cancer make them a potent weapon against blood cancers, offering hope to patients who have exhausted conventional treatment options.

Challenges and Future Directions
We are exploring ways to enhance the safety and efficacy of CAR-T therapies, including developing next-generation CAR constructs and combination therapies. Looking ahead, the future of CAR-T cell therapy holds promise for expanding its application to other types of cancer and refining existing treatments. Ongoing research aims to identify new target antigens, improve the manufacturing process, and enhance the persistence of CAR-T cells within the body.

CAR-T cell therapy has emerged as a groundbreaking approach in treating blood cancers, offering new hope to patients facing limited options. By tapping into the body's own immune system, this innovative therapy represents a remarkable stride towards personalized and targeted cancer treatment. As research advances and technology evolves, CAR-T cell therapy is poised to reshape the landscape of cancer care, unlocking new possibilities for patients and experts.

-Dr. Natraj K S, Senior Consultant – Hematology, HCG Cancer Hospitals, KR Road, Bangalore.

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