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What is Stuttering? Here's everything you need to know

Stuttering can negatively affect self-esteem, social relationships, and general quality of life. It's crucial to remember that most children have a time of disfluency in their speech development, which is known as normal developmental disfluency. 

What is Stuttering? Here's everything you need to know RBA
First Published Sep 1, 2023, 7:00 AM IST

Stuttering, or stammering, is a speech disorder characterised by disruptions in the normal flow of speech. People who stutter experience involuntary repetitions of sounds, syllables, words, or phrases, along with prolongations of sounds and blocking speech sounds. These disruptions can make speech sound choppy, interrupted, or hesitant. Stuttering, also known as stammering, is a speech disorder characterised by disturbances in the normal flow of speech. The symptoms can vary in frequency and severity among individuals. Some common symptoms of stuttering include:

- Repetitions: Repeating sounds, syllables, words, or phrases, such as "b-b-b-ball" or "I-I-I like."

- Prolongations: Prolonging the sounds of certain words or syllables, such as "sssssnake."

- Blocks: Momentary halts or pauses in speech where no sound comes out, often accompanied by visible tension or struggle.

- Interjections: Inserting filler words like "uh," "um," or "like" more frequently than normal.

- Monosyllabic Word Usage: Using short, one-syllable words to avoid words that are difficult to pronounce.

- Avoidance Behaviors: Avoiding certain words, situations, or speaking altogether to prevent instances of stuttering.

- Secondary Behaviors: These are physical behaviors that often accompany stuttering, such as facial tics, blinking, or jerking the head.

- Anxiety and Tension: Feelings of anxiety, frustration, or embarrassment related to speaking, which can exacerbate stuttering symptoms.

- Negative Emotions: Development of negative attitudes towards speaking situations, leading to reduced self-esteem and social withdrawal.

The exact cause of stuttering is not fully understood, but it is believed to arise from a combination of factors, including genetics, neurological differences, and environmental influences. Some key factors related to stuttering include:

- Genetics: Stuttering tends to run in families, suggesting a genetic component. Researchers have identified specific genes that may contribute to susceptibility to stuttering.

- Neurological Factors: Differences in brain structure and function may play a role in stuttering. There could be issues in the areas of the brain responsible for speech production and language processing.

- Developmental Factors: Stuttering often emerges during childhood when a child is learning to speak. During this period, there might be a mismatch between the child's developing language and motor skills, leading to disruptions in speech fluency.

- Environmental Factors: Some environmental factors can exacerbate stuttering. High stress levels, pressure to speak quickly, or negative reactions from others can increase the likelihood of stuttering in susceptible individuals.


- Trauma or Emotional Factors: Emotional trauma or stress can sometimes trigger or worsen stuttering, especially in individuals who are predisposed to the disorder.


Stuttering can significantly impact a person's self-esteem, social interactions, and overall quality of life. It's important to note that most children go through a period of disfluency in their speech development, which is often referred to as normal developmental disfluency. 


However, if stuttering persists beyond this period (typically up to 6 months or so), or if it becomes severe and begins to impact daily communication and social interactions, it's recommended to seek evaluation and guidance from a speech-language pathologist or a healthcare professional specialising in speech disorders. Early intervention, speech therapy, and support from family and friends can benefit individuals who stutter.

-         Dr Ram Pradeep, Speech Language Pathologist, CARE Hospitals, Banjara Hills, Hyderabad


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